Paryushana 2017 – All You Need to Know

The festival of Paryushana has already passed, but next year’s festival dates have already been set. For those who are unaware of the Jain festival, Paryushana is more commonly known as the festival of forgiveness according to the Jain faithful: an eight-day or ten-day festival (depending on whom you ask) where Jains of both of the prominent sects – Svetambara and Digambara – have significant fasting periods and ultimately seek to atone for sins they have committed upon others.

Fasting and forgiveness are the two focal points of Paryushana, the pinnacle of holy events in the Jain religion. Originating from and practiced mostly in India, Jainism teaches its followers to achieve liberation by way of non-violence (ahimsa) and renunciation or non-possession (aparigraha). Similar to Buddhism, Jainism believes in a cycle of reincarnation that will ultimately lead to the liberation of and true bliss of the soul when one has truly achieved these and the other three major mahavratas of brahmacarya (chaste living or sexual restraint), satya (truthfulness) and asteya (non-stealing) – cumulatively known as the Five Great Vows.

The celebration of Paryushana itself has no strict protocol, and it only suggests that its followers practice as they are able. Typically common in either sect, however, is the recital of several chapters from holy text. For the Svetambara (also known as the “white-clad”), followers often recite from the Kalpa Sutra, a collection of biographies of Tirthankaras – saviors and spiritual teachers – or of the Antagada Sutra to learn of those who had achieved moksha – spiritual liberation from the cycle of karma, similar in concept to Buddhism’s nirvana. The Digambara (the “sky-clad”) often recite from the Tattvartha Sutra, which compiles a rich philosophy of Jainism in the span of ten chapters. This text is generally regarded as one of the authoritative texts on Jainism as a whole, and is held in high esteem between both the Digambara and the Svetambara.

Both Digambara and Svetambara also celebrate Paryushana by way of fasting, and this only has slight differences between the two factions. Digambara often practice this by consuming food or water no more than once per day. Svetambara recognize this by consuming only water, also boiled, between sunrise and sunset. Fasting for Jains is said to be a process of purifying the body and the soul, and that the act of fasting in itself will not suffice for Jains – one who truly follows this spiritual path during a fast must also restrain themselves from having the very desire of eating and drinking, or else the fasting is viewed as worthless.

The other major component and reason of Paryushana, forgiveness, falls in line with the great vow of ahimsa – non-violence. For both Svetambara and Digambara, the final day of the festival of Paryushana culminates in a mass prayer for forgiveness of all offenses. Jains of both sects often practice this by chanting, “Micchami dukadam.” Roughly translated, this means, “If I have offended you – knowingly or unknowingly, in thought, in word or in action – then I seek your forgiveness.” Because Jains actively ask for forgiveness, essentially, from all living beings – not only friends, family or strangers – some also refer to this act as the “rite of universal friendship.”

HOLY DAYS OF JAINISM

Jainism has been a part of Indian traditions and culture dating more than 25 centuries. Though it is one of the oldest traditions and religious philosophies in India, it Is not considered part of “mainstream” religious teaching in the country, as Hinduism has long been the standard of the South Asia country.

Jainism is not so much a “religion” – it Is considered “nontheistic” – as it is a way of life, a philosophy of living. But even as just a philosophy, Jainism has developed an estimated 5 million followers, with most of them in India. It is a philosophy centered around non-violence to all living creatures (meaning it generally has a vegetarian lifestyle), and a progression through successive lives” until perfection is achieved in moral and spiritual living.

While taking some ideas from Hinduism and Brahmanism in that Jainism used to be considered a denomination of either, it does have just enough different from those religions as to be considered its own philosophy. Just like those and otherworldly religions, Jainism has its share of holy days and festivals that carry significance to adherents and are generally followed and honored with rituals and celebrations to further the goal of achieving spiritual purity.

There are five main holy festivals in Jainism:

  • Mahavira Jayanti, which celebrates the birth of Jainism’s founder Mahavira (who lived in the 7th century A.D.). Occurring in late March or early April, Mahavira’s birthday is celebrated with worship by the community of Jains, processionals, and devotionals.
  • Paryushana, which is an eight-day festival held in late August or early September, and is considered the holiest time on the Jain calendar. All Jains are required to fast (which usually means shunning all food or drink), and each day excerpts of the sacred Jain scripture are read out loud in the community. There are seven days of “attainment” during the festival, and the last day is the day of “fulfillment.”
  • Diwali is essentially a New Year’s celebration, held in late October or early November. The night of Diwali is a time for Jains to recite hymns and conduct mediations. The Diwali is supposed to signify the night in which Mahavira reached a state of “absolute bliss,” or Nirvana. The morning after Diwali is supposed to signify the first day of the new year on the Jain calendar.
  • Kartak Purnima is the Jain pilgrimage, which occurs on a day in late October or early November when Jains travel to one of the Jain holy sites.
  • Maura Agyaras is a full day of meditation and fasting. Held in late November or early December, it is a day in which Jains observe total silence – no communication whatsoever with anyone.

Jainism is similar to Buddhism and Hinduism in that they are about living many lives and making progress toward spiritual perfection using the highest standards of good and moral behavior, thought and action. Fasting and meditation are common rituals among Jains and employment lawyers, and to honor the progress they make every day, having these festivals and celebrations give Jains an opportunity to get closer to their spiritual cores and that spiritual perfection they believe is attainable.

THE 9 PHILOSOPHIES OF JAINISM

Jainism is one of those spiritual philosophies that is entirely about self-improvement.

Similar to Hinduism, Jainism is a philosophy that considers a person as going through a continuous cycle of birth, life, death, and re-birth in succession so that each new life is a little more “pure” than the last, until the person reaches a state of perfection so that the cycle of birth and death is broken.

This attainment of perfection believed by Jains come from basic principles of good actions, thoughts and behaviors – which are often called Right Belief, Right Knowledge and Right Conduct.Based on these principles, Jainism takes thought and action and value them as the same, while some religions (including original Christianity as Jesus taught it) tended to make thought superior to deed. In Jainism, if the action is not spiritually sound, then the thought is not either, and vice versa.

The Jain philosophy of right action and right thought has a foundation that consists of what are called “nine fundamentals” of Jainism. We’ll spell these out one by one.

  1. Jiva is about a soul that is eternal, invisible, formless and cannot be destroyed. It is seen as an eternal energy, and all living beings are called Jiva.
  2. Anjiva is that which has no soul or consciousness (a non-living thing). Anjiva is divided five ways: method of movement (Dharmastikay), method of rest (Adarmastikay), matter itself (Pudgalastikay), space (Akashatikay), and time (Kala).
  3. Punya, which is received by completing tasks of good. These can include charity, forwarding religious philosophy to others, and other deeds deemed “wholesome.” Punya means literally “results of good deeds,” not the deeds themselves. It is fruitage, if you will.
  4. Pap is the opposite of Punya in that it is the result of bad actions or behaviors. Any act of cruelty, anger or violence can bring about negative results to the perpetrator.
  5. Asrava is essentially “karma is a b**ch.” Any badbelief, passion or negligent behavior brings about bad karma, or asrava, which “attaches” to the soul.
  6. Samvar is that which would stop the karma that comes from asrava. Samvar is about repentance, careful reflection, self-control and suffering for past bad deeds.
  7. Bandh is the idea of karmas putting us in bondage. This comes about when we react to a situation with a sense of investment, whether emotional, mental of spiritual.
  8. Nirjara is the erasure or elimination of karma. Karmas can be shed either actively or passively. Passive means waiting until the karmas “mature” and give off their results, while active iscan be asking for forgivenmess, paying penance, and meditating – all meant to accelerate the “maturing” of the karmas.
  9. Moska, which is liberation, or freedom from all karmas.

Jains will be expected to honor five main tenets, which will help ease the amount of karmas that must be covercome to achieve liberation. The five tenets are non-violence toward any living creature, non-attachment to any and all posessions, celibacy or at least sexual control, plus no lying and no stealing.  Karmas may still come, but following these five tenets as closely as possible will keep most karmas away and make it easier to achieve spiritual freedom.

Do Jains Believe In An Afterlife?

The idea of an afterlife in Jainism might exist, but not in the way that most other people think about it. To the Jains, life is a path to spiritual enlightenment and eventual liberation guided by the Tirthankaras. One life, however, might not be enough to get there, and depending on the sect of Jainism to which you belong, you might not be able to get there at all if you were born a female. That’s where reincarnation comes into play.

If you’re a Jain, then how you live your life affects what happens to you after you die. That said, there are 17 different kinds of death that a Jain can experience, two of which are said to be more important than all the rest.

One is called Akama Marana. This type of death is experienced by someone who doesn’t want to die. While this might seem like it would be the most common form of death, that’s an outside perspective. To a Jain, this life is just a single leg of a very long trek to liberation. That said, this is the form of death often experienced by those ignorant of the cycle of reincarnation. If you aren’t aware of how a person is reborn, are ignorant of the other worlds and universes that exist, or don’t comprehend how your soul might eventually be liberated at the end of your long journey, then you have experienced an Akama Marana.

The second important form of death is called Sakama Marana and is more typical of a Jain believer. One who experiences this form of death isn’t afraid to die and will accept death as a transition to the next life or liberation. This person knows that death is inevitable and natural, and attempting to prevent or postpone death is futile. Most Jains strive for this type of death, as it runs parallel to their beliefs.

Jains believe that the soul is eternal. The cycle of life and death is everlasting until spiritual enlightenment and liberation can be achieved. In fact, the only purpose of the physical form of matter is its effect on living beings: how we experience life in both pleasure and pain, and how we live and die as well.

In order to achieve liberation from the cycle of life, death, and rebirth, a Jain must live life according to a number of important doctrines, all which stress the importance of peace. The Jains believe in striving to live in community not only with their human neighbors but also with animals. The 24 Tirthankaras are presumed to be the only religious followers (and leaders) of Jainism to have been liberated from the cycle and so for everyone else, it continues, on and on.

History of Jainism

Jainism is a religion that has endured since the 7th century BC when it was born into Eastern India. There are a number of periods throughout world history in which certain regions experience a rebirth in politics, social structures, or religion. For India, this was one such time period. Up until then, Hinduism was a hugely ingrained part of Indian culture, but it lacked the momentum for change that many people desired. Indeed, society as a whole needed a catalyst to evolve toward a brighter future. Jainism was that catalyst.

In Jainism, there are 24 historical figures–called the Tirthankaras–whose teachings can still be evaluated as universal truth today. The last Tirthankara is assumedly the founder of Jainism. His name was Mahavira, and many texts say he lived from 599 to 527 BC. He was a warrior for much of his life, but eventually, he decided to travel a different path. By the age of 30, he gave up his way of life in order to find spiritual enlightenment of a different kind. He recruited a number of followers along the way to this enlightenment and eventually fasted to death (although this is a part of his story that is often contended).

The community which he founded was quickly expanded to include upwards of 50,000 monks and nuns before he died. Even though this was the beginning of Jainism, different groups within the religion developed early and are still around to this day. These differences of opinion aren’t always extreme. One sect, the Shvetambara, believe that white robes should be worn by followers, while another, the Digambaras, believe nothing at all should be worn.

Other beliefs cause a lot of disharmony within the religion. The Digambaras believe that women can’t achieve the same spiritual enlightenment that men can, and must be reincarnated into men in order to see their souls liberated. There are other differences. For example, the sects can’t agree on which Jain texts should remain canonized.

The Jains believe that life should be an ethical and spiritual path crossed through reincarnation and that Jainism represents an eternal dharma. The Tirthankaras simply guide the way.

These fractured communities persisted for a while so that by the sixth century AD, the Jains had settled to the south and west. Today, they reside all over the world. There are five million Jains in communities from India and China to Canada, Europe, Kenya, the United States and more. These communities hold festivals celebrating key tenets and core beliefs, called Paryushan, Das Lakshan, Mahavir Jayanti, and Diwali.

What is The Jain Emblem?

Most religions fall upon some sort of symbol that expresses an obvious distinction between their beliefs and those of others. For example, Christianity is signified most usually by the sign of the cross. You won’t find a Christian church that doesn’t have one. Jainism isn’t as easy, especially because it doesn’t have as many followers. Jains typically use a mash-up with a number of symbols, including a hand with a wheel inside of the palm, as their emblem. Inside that wheel is the word “ahimsa” that translates to “non-injury” or “non-violence” which basically shows most outsiders exactly what it is a Jain seeks from life.

Ahimsa is a part of the core Jain tenet that all of us should live together in harmony–animals included. That’s why most Jains are vegetarians. Jains don’t believe in using violence to solve problems, and to them violence is a danger to oneself as much as it is to others. In resorting to violence, a Jain believes that he or she is only placing obstacles in the path to true liberation of the soul, that which Jains seek at the end of life.

The wheel has twenty-four spokes which represent the preachings of Tirthankaras. These exist as a guide to liberate souls from the life and death reincarnation cycle.

This emblem was not chosen until 1974, when Jains chose it for themselves. From then on, you won’t see or hear anything about the Jain religious culture without noticing the emblem. They use it so consistency in order that people ascertain the value behind it without deviation from meaning.

The swastika is used inside of the emblem as well, but it is often removed in regions where its connotations have been overlapped by an association with Nazi Germany.

The emblem outline represents the universe and its three Loks (or realms). There is one for heaven, one for the material world that we’re more familiar with (because we live here), and one to represent hell. The small semicircle at the very top indicates a zone that lies outside of all three realms. This is where liberated souls go once they have achieved such enlightenment. Beneath the semicircle there are three dots which represent three distinct opportunities to be good–by adhering to the right beliefs, conducting oneself in the right way, and obtaining the right knowledge to carry on.

At the very bottom is a phrase that translates to “All life is bound together by mutual support and interdependence,” which is a rehashing of their core belief that we should live in harmony. The emblem in its entirety indicates the various beliefs that a Jain must adhere to in order to liberate his or her soul from being a Dallas personal injury lawyer.

Are There Jains in America?

Jainism is a source of great inspiration for those who practice it, because it’s all about karma and attaining spiritual liberation after perfecting the way day-to-day life is lived. While many of us may not even know what the religion is or anything about its core tenets, there are actually plenty of Jains living in America today. It mostly started with a period of immigration that began in the 1900s and peaked in the 1970s.

In 1893, Virchand Gandhi visited the United States and began to speak publicly about Jainism during the first Parliament of World Religions, a gathering which was conceived as a way for people to discuss their various beliefs in a world forum. Although the first took place in 1893, the next would not be held until a century later in 1993. Since then, the meetings have been held every few years.

Gandhi’s publicity led to a St. Louis Jain temple being built in time for the World’s Fair held in the same city in 1904. The temple has bounced around since then, landing in Las Vegas and then eventually Los Angeles, where it stays today. This was the foundation for the influx of Jains who would grace the United States in 1944.

An order of monks and nuns make up part of the Jain community. They take a number of vows and make lifelong commitments during their initiation into the order, and work to perform duties deemed sacred to Jainism. Members of this order abandon material wealth. Chitrabhanu, a former Jain monastic, eventually traveled to the United States in 1971. He first landed in Harvard, where he gave a number of lectures about his faith. He then created a Jain center in New York City.

He was only the first to do so. Acharya Sushil Kumar entered the country in 1975 and established more a number of other centers. Together, their support led to the Federation of Jain Associations in North America (or JAINA), which is an organization created in order to promote Jainism in North America. JAINA is welcoming to all and representative as such because it does not discriminate between Jain sects.

About a hundred thousand Jains live in the United States, a number which comprises about a third of all those who reside in countries outside of India. There are at least two dozen temples still standing in the U.S., and by 2010 it was home to more temples than in any other country.

Jains who live in the U.S. are well known for their hard-working attitudes and are frequently employed in high-paying managerial or administrative positions. Jains believe in harmony with nature and that all animals should live together helping one another. It should therefore come as no surprise that they often volunteer for animal-related causes.

If you would like to pursue an education related to Jainism, Florida International University offers the Bhagwan Mahavir Professorship in Jain Studies.

Famous Jain Businessmen

If you are a believer in Jainism, then you believe the way you live your life determines whether or not you will achieve true liberation of the soul when you pass away. Most Jains reside in India, but they can be found in other parts of the world like the U.S., Canada, and Britain. Because most Jains live in India, that’s where most famous Jain businessmen reside as well. Although not everyone might realize it, but India is a country of 1.3 billion people (compared to the 323 million in the U.S. [Manhattan] and 36 million in Canada) and business is booming. Here are just a few of the Jain businessmen who have made a big name for themselves by taking advantage of time and circumstance.

Narendra Patni founded Patni Computer Systems after graduating from the Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee. He also spent time and graduated from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. By 2005, he had managed to accumulate $750 million of wealth. He passed away in 2014. Patni Computer Systems was eventually assimilated into a much smaller company that took its name, IGATE. Patni’s legacy continues on through his work in computer IT, and a wife and two children.

Bhavarlal Hiralal Jain was a proponent of changing degraded land into that which could be cultivated, and he was wildly successful in doing so when he introduced micro-irrigation into India. He was the founder chairman of Jain Irrigation Systems Ltd., which at the time of this writing is the second largest company specializing in micro-irrigation in the world. He also founded the Gandhi Research Foundation in accordance with his beliefs. He passed away in 2016.

You’ve probably heard of InfoSpace and Intelius, both of which were founded by Naveen Jain. Currently he chairs Moon Express, another company he founded after moving on from his previous two homes in business. Although he grew up poor, he certainly aspired to great things and achieved those things and more. He even spent time with Microsoft in 1989 before moving on to his own projects. He is 57 years old.

One member of the Sahu Jain family, Vineet Jain, works as managing director of Bennett, Coleman & Co. Ltd., the parent company of a number of gargantuan Indian newspapers including The Times of India. In 2017, he made the list of India’s fifty most powerful people, coming in at number twenty-three. He was educated in Switzerland. He has won prestigious awards like the Entrepreneur of the Year Award in 2013 from the Bombay Management Association.

These men are just a few business rockstars who have a lot to teach the rest of us about how anything is possible if we put our mind to it. Their beliefs are only a part of their success–their will to succeed is the other piece of the puzzle.

What Are Some Criticisms of Jainism?

Few religions or systems of belief can coexist without enduring their fair share of criticism, whether fair or unfair, and Jainism is no different. The ancient Indian religion is still practiced by millions even today, with smaller non-Indian communities located within Canada, the United Kingdom, Europe, Kenya, Asia, and even the United States. If you’ve ever read about festivals called Paryushana, Daslakshana, Mahavir Jayanti, or Diwali, those are Jain events.

The word “Jain” itself comes from the Sanskrit word for “victor” and signifies a Jain’s ethical and spiritual journey through life and a continuous number of rebirths.

Most criticism of Jainism is levied intellectually and is based on whether or not the religion’s beliefs and practices remain consistent with those who teach them.

The Jain theory of Karma supposes that karma is a physical substance found everywhere and that the substance is attracted to a person’s soul dependent on the actions of the person. In other words, the more harmonious someone is with the civilization or natural world around them, the more karma he or she would attract. Critics often question the lack of oversight by a god. How can the fate of your soul be governed entirely by your own actions without any connection to a Supreme Being? Critics believe that at the very least, that which you receive for your good actions must be administered by a Supreme Being, and not by the supposedly tangible substance they call karma.

The ideas fuelling any religion thrive because they offer solutions, but critics of Jainism suggest that certain Jain doctrines promote hesitancy or uncertainty among followers, and therefore create new problems over solutions.

Other critics believe that the very idea of Jainism undoes itself because Jain epistemology can’t deny doctrines that contradict its own. Jainism posits a complex reality that cannot possibly be described or comprehended by a single doctrine, and therefore its own must not adequately articulate that which it must articulate in order to make universal sense. The Jain doctrine itself would prefer to reconcile rather than contradict or refute, but perhaps this is a reason for the religion’s popularity, to begin with.

Other Jain practices are more heavily criticized, and by a larger swath of the population where Jains thrive. Minors are often inducted into Jain monastic orders, Jains routinely fast to a purposeful death, and women seem to be capable of less authoritative positions than men. Some sects of Jainism believe that women must be reborn as men before they can achieve these higher positions or true liberation. Naturally, some people in the 21st century take issue with these practices–but really, they aren’t too dissimilar from the practices of religions all over the world, nor are they more radical.

3 Powerful Benefits Of Regular Meditation

Meditation has continued to grow in popularity over the past few decades. To some people it is a way to calm the mind, to others, it is a way to connect with their spirit, and to some, it helps keep their body in a healthy state. In reality, meditation does all of these things. It is a multi-faceted practice that combines relaxation, focus, and sometimes exercise. It’s often easy to perform, doesn’t require any equipment, and doesn’t leave you feeling exhausted afterward.

Perhaps you’ve considered meditation, but aren’t sure if it’s right for you. If you’re still on the fence, then consider the following three benefits of meditation and use them to help you make your decision.

1. Cutting Out The Stress.

One of the most significant and most well-documented benefits of meditation is its effect on our stress levels. It happens to be one of best natural treatments for reducing stress. And it doesn’t really matter where that stress is coming from. Calming the mind and improving your breathing can have a profound impact on your stress levels. Not just for that moment either. The effect can last for most of the day.

Is reducing stress that important, though? It’s not just about feeling better mentally. Stress and the hormones related to it happen to be risk factors in many serious health conditions. High levels of stress can increase your risk for cardiovascular conditions, mental health conditions, and even diabetes. Therefore, regular meditation can play a preventative role for all of those problems.

2. Improving The Mind.

There are numerous ways in which meditation affects your mental state. For example, consider its impact on memory retention. The mind naturally drifts toward a state of forgetfulness as it ages. Yet, at the same time, it retains its natural ability to produce the new cells needed. Those cells help you remember, but you have to find ways to encourage the brain to produce them.

Several studies have shown that meditation encourages the production of new cells in the brain responsible for memory retention. One study, in particular, revealed that daily meditation led to a thickening of the brain in the specific area related to memory. Finally, meditation can be used to reduce the impact and progression of diseases that directly affect memory.

3. Fighting Diseases.

We’ve already seen how meditation can reduce the risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. We’ve also seen how it can reduce the impact of diseases that affect memory. However, it can also reduce the risk of suffering from inflammation and autoimmune diseases. It does this by directly improving the efficiency of the immune system; another part of the body that seems to suffer and decline as we age.

In Conclusion.

Daily meditation isn’t difficult or expensive. It doesn’t take much time and it’s easy to learn. From janitors to attorneys at The Law Office of Mark J. Sacco, he benefits that it has on the body are immense. Meditation reduces stress, improves the immune system, and helps with mental clarity. And those are only three of the dozens of benefits that meditation has on the body, mind, and spirit.

If you are planning on meditating today, perhaps this music will help: