Ethics of Jainism: Everything You Should Know

How much do you really know about the Jain religion? Few systems of belief are as practical (depending on your point of view) in real-world values as Jainism. The world’s two most prominent religions — Christianity and Islam — have histories steeped in violence. But not Jainism. Although Jainism is much less popular and lesser known than the aforementioned, the religion’s teachings are ancient, and its believers firmly devout in their practices and traditions. 

Jainism is built on a foundation of careful ethics and strong morals.

There are two basic paths for a Jain to follow: Ascetic and Sravaka. The former describes the path for those who wish to devote themselves entirely to Jain philosophy by disregarding typical human indulgences. The latter describes the path for those who wish to build and maintain a successful Jain household. But what is the core principle of both paths? Jains must inflict no injury; not to the people with whom they interact on a daily basis or to the very microorganisms underneath each footfall. 

In order to achieve such a passive lifestyle, the ethics of Jainism demand that each ascetic follower take and uphold five strict vows: ahimsa, satya, asteya, brahmacharya, and aparigraha. Taken together, these vows ask Jains to adhere to a peaceful, truthful life without giving into the need for material possession.

The Purusarthasiddhyupaya (yes, a real Jain tex) reads: “All these subdivisions (injury, falsehood, stealing, unchastity, and attachment) are himsa as indulgence in these sullies the pure nature of the soul. Falsehood etc. have been mentioned separately only to make the disciple understand through illustrations.”

In addition to the five major vows, ascetic Jains are expected to uphold two lesser vows as well: guna vratas and siksa vratas. Sravaka Jains are expected to uphold minor versions of the aforementioned five vows and the minor vows as well. Guna vratas means vows for merit while sinksa vratas means vows for discipline.

The guna vratas are vows that limit a believer’s limits, mostly physical. They allow a follower to break or bend several of the major vows in order to keep the lifestyle of a householder, which, for example, could include inadvertently slaughtering those pesky microorganisms that cannot be seen with the naked eye. This minor vow also limits a follower’s vulgarity and material possession at home.

Siksa vratas is all about one’s resolve. For example, a person might transgress by placing consumable food on a surface inhabited by microorganisms when it was not necessary (i.e. such as placing that food on a leaf before consumption).

By now, you can probably ascertain that Jainism is strict. Non-Jains fail to uphold typical Jain practice and tradition simply by enjoying a meal in the wrong way or made up of the wrong foods! (You also may have guessed that the Jain diet is indeed vegetarian!)

What Would A Jainist Say About The Novel Coronavirus Pandemic?

Jains are an interesting group of believers. They represent one of the most peace-loving groups of people who are living on the planet today, and what’s more — their words are backed up by their actions. You won’t see Jains arguing over which religion’s beliefs are more valid than another’s or starting a war or telling someone they don’t belong. It’s not in their fundamental disposition to do any of that.

But because they are so pacifist, they don’t believe that any life form should be harmed — no matter how small. That means that Jain diets are sometimes dictated by the type of microorganisms that could be harmed during the cultivation or consumption of certain kinds of vegetables or fruits. Sounds complicated, right?

You wouldn’t be wrong.

But those beliefs have led to questions about how Jains view the current novel coronavirus outbreak, the end result of which is a disease called COVID-19. Do Jains believe even a virus should be spared from medical onslaught? Not quite. First of all, the jury is still out on whether viruses should be classified as “life” at all. Second, Jains will still put human suffering high on the totem pole.

The Jain Society of Metropolitan Washington wrote to its Jain following recently: “During these challenging times of Coronavirus, I hope we all give the utmost priority to the health and safety of ourselves and the community. JAINA is happy to know how our Jain Centers are supporting the community during this difficult time.”

Brianne Donaldson was recently named the Shri Parshvanath Presidential Chair of Jain Studies at the University of Irvine in California (UCI), but her career is mostly on hold due to the spread of the novel coronavirus. One case has been reported on campus so far, and students and faculty are mostly locked down.

When the outbreak begins to subside, Donaldson expects to continue her work regarding Jain views on applied ethics through a philosophical approach, which will include a focus on animal studies

Donaldson said, “I look forward to bringing Jain studies — and South Asian religious and philosophical traditions more broadly — into campus conversations and courses at UCI. I am also exploring opportunities where the rich textual history, metaphysical insights and ethical commitments of South Asian traditions, including Jainism, can contribute to other disciplines and discussions, such as medical humanities, animal ethics, anthropology, agricultural ethics, plant-based food initiatives, and nonviolent advocacy, among others.”

Trivia: How Much Do You Know About The Jain Religion? Part II

One of India’s most popular religions is also one of the least known elsewhere in the world. We strive to change that. We want everyone to know a little bit more about those who practice Jainism — because we feel that they represent some of the kindest, most peaceful people in this chaotic world of ours. Do you know all there is to know about Jains? This is how you put your knowledge to the test! Today we look at the traditional Jain diet.

Do Jains Eat Meat?

No! Traditionally, the Jain diet is vegetarian. However, the Jains believe in peace between all living organisms, down to the smallest insect. That might require believers to give up certain vegetarian foods that cause harm to those lifeforms. That’s why Jains don’t eat any vegetables that grow underground. These foods include potatoes, garlic, and onions. Harvesting these vegetables requires a farmer to uproot the entire plant, thus damaging or killing it in the process.

Do Jains Support Veganism?

Some activists do support veganism, but it is not required so long as the vegetarian does not harm other living organisms. The reason Jains support veganism is also based on the important religious principle of non-violence: dairy products often come at the price of animal products. That’s why Jains traditionally avoid products such as milk and cheese in the modern age. Long ago, animals that provided these foods were treated humanely. The foods were therefore included in the overall diet.

Do Jains Drink Alcohol?

Ancient Jain texts ban the consumption of alcohol by a Jain householder. In addition, the texts specifically ban food items such as butter, flesh, honey, and wine because of the damage they do to animals or insects. Many fruits are also off-limits: Gular, Anjeera, Banyan, Peepal, and Pakar. 

Are Jains Allowed To Drink Unfiltered Water?

No! There could be small microorganisms living in that water. But the rule is much more relaxed these days because avoiding contaminated water is so difficult in parts of India. Some Jains will routinely filter water on their own or simply use bottled water.

Are Jains Allowed To Eat Fungi?

Nope! Mushrooms, fungi, and yeasts are all forbidden. These foods not only grow in unclean places but might also contain smaller microorganisms that should not be needlessly harmed.

When Can A Jain Cook Meals?

Jain texts dictate that followers should always eat in the light of the sun, which means cooking at night goes against the teachings. This rule can be taken even further: some Jains won’t eat foods that were stored overnight, especially because they are more likely to have grown bacteria.

Jains Get Along With Other Religions

Those who observe the practices of Jainism often praise its followers for their boundless pacifist attitudes. They do not believe in harming other living creatures, no matter how small or seemingly insignificant. Perhaps that is why it should come as little surprise that Jains get along with those who follow far different religious practices. But they spend a lot of their time making good with those who are most similar, as well. 

Sikhism is another religion with a minority population of followers in India. It is also one of the youngest in the world. Still, Jains and Sikhs are often seen working together when practicing religious rituals or observing holidays important to their religions.

But more notably, the two religions have always accepted one another. Neither has ever sought to harm the other. None of the followers of either religion have fought. Jains and Sikhs cooperate on more profound levels than members of other religions.

For example, Punjabi colleges that are Sikh-owned will often accept Jain students and vice versa. When traveling afar, members of one religion will often seek members of the other religion out for hospitality.

Why are the two religions such a good match for one another?

Simple: the core practices of one perfectly complement the other. Jains have a strict principle of ahimsa, or nonviolence. It is the reason Jains are so peaceful. Sikhs have a strict principle of seva, or service. They regularly tend to those who are in greatest need. For at least five centuries, Sikhs have also provided free langars — or community kitchen — all over the world. 

For the most part, Jain and Sikh followers believe in equal rights and frown upon the more traditional caste systems of other religions. In an era of intolerance, terrorism, murder, corruption, and where foreign bribes are running rampant at their home in India, Jains and Sikhs serve as beacons of light for those who need their help the most. Sometimes, of course, they focus on serving one another as part of their daily routines and ritual practices.

Sadly, sometimes westerners subject them to hate crimes based in large part on ignorance and misunderstanding.

It does not help that academics have not poured the same focus into studying either religion as they have in studying larger ones, like Christianity or Islam. Until they do, it is likely that Jains and Sikhs will continue to be targeted because of this lack of awareness by others. A new book will be published to shed light on Jainism and Sikhism as they relate to one another. Perhaps this book is the first step in the right direction.

Watch the video below to learn more about Sikhism! 

Are Jains Responsible for Climate Change – This One Cult Thinks So.

Scientifically speaking, climate change is real and we should be teaching about it. But is the ancient religion of Jainism to blame? Seems illogical. However, one group of extremists in North India is claiming that Jains are the cause.

While we are all for advocating for climate change, blaming it on a religion seems to be quite outlandish. The group known as Anoop Mandal wants to protect against climate change for the welfare of the world, however, only for a certain groups of people within that world.

The group blames climate change on two different minority religions in India – baniyas and Jains. Baniyas are hated in India in a similar way that Jews are hated all over the world. They control the banks and finances and are therefore sinister. Anoop Mandal states on their website that the baniyas orchestrated a famine so they can have all the wealth in India. And the Jains – who are known to be a peaceful group – apparently are responsible for the excessive carbon emissions that lead to global warming.

While the group that knows the carbon emissions lead to global warming, how this is done by a religious group of people and not the industrial boom of technology still remains questionable.

Not all member of Anoop Mandal feels this way as a group of them broke off and formed their own environmental activism group because they believe in science and not science that marginalizes. The new group is called World Pablic [sic] Awareness Foundation.

India, which is one of the world’s most populated countries has a history of racism and discrimination. Not too long ago a new law regarding citizenship was passed that didn’t include Islam as a religion for citizenship. This is outrageous because out of the 1.3 billion people who live in India, over 200 million of them are Muslims. Not allowing religious asylum for Muslims seems like a huge oversight or a targetted act of discrimination depending on who you ask.

While Anoop Mandal is raising awareness of climate change, people should be wary of the other information the group is spreading. Just because they believe in one good thing doesn’t mean that all their ideas are good. In fact, a member was quoted that he would die for the organization. If a group you join asks you to kill yourself for the create good – that is no longer an organization; it’s a cult.

Trivia: How Much Do You Know About The Jain Religion? Part I

Jainism is most pervasive throughout India, but followers have spread throughout the world. Many people have probably never even heard of Jainism — and we think that should change. How many Jain philosophers and spiritual believers do you know? How many have you heard of? Although many Indian celebrities and politicians have Jain beliefs, they don’t necessarily promote them. That’s okay, because that’s not what the religion is all about.

Here are a few trivia questions. See if you can answer them!

How many Jains are there?

There are around five million Jain followers currently living all around the world. Most Jains who don’t reside in India live in countries like Canada, Europe, Kenya, the UK, the US, Hong Kong, Suriname, and Fiji.

What are the five main vows of Jainism?

The five main vows parallel the ten commandments somewhat. They’re all about doing what’s right. They are ahimsa, satya, asteya, brahmacharya, and aparigraha. Respectively, those vows reflect one’s commitment to peace, truth, celibacy, non-attachment, and not stealing. These vows are the reason that Jains are some of the most passive people on this planet. They follow a vegetarian diet and believe even the smallest single-celled organisms are important and should be protected.

What are the two major “sects” of Jainism?

Like most major religions, the Jains have divided into smaller groups based on beliefs and interpretation of ancient texts. The two major sub-traditions are Digambaras and Svetambaras. The primary difference between them is their views on gender roles in the religion. 

What does it mean to be ascetic?

Asceticism is based on non-possession. Most major religions grew popular based on their acceptance of — or even promotion of — those living in poverty, but the Jains have held true to their beliefs to this day. An ascetic Jain might go so far as to live without owning any clothes! This is also the reason why the Jains spend time fasting.

What are the goals of Jain meditation?

The purpose of Jain meditation isn’t self-realization, which is the primary goal of other similar religions like Buddhism or Hinduism. It’s not about earthly transformation. It’s more about learning earthly restraint and staying on the right path by thinking the right way. It’s about ending the karmic attachments before a life ends.

Do the Jains worship any gods or goddesses?

Yes, they worship gods and goddesses — but those gods and goddesses are hardly the focal point of the religion, and they don’t believe in or worship an all-knowing, all-powerful creator like other religions. Jain worship is more about rituals, especially during the many festivals celebrated by believers.

Courts Rule Not To Interfere In Jain Traditions

The Madhya Pradesh High Court ruled that the judicial forces at work in New Delhi have no jurisdiction over traditional religious practices. This ruling means that men will continue to be the sole performers of the jal abhishek ritual, barring women who believe they should have a chance to do the same work in equal standing. 

According to the court ruling, “Men are allowed to perform jalabhishek of idol Bawangajaji after taking bath and after wearing dhoti and dupatta. It is an essential religious practice and in no way can be termed as discrimination [to women].”

Further justification of the ruling was that women in general are not barred from entering Jain temples and sanctuaries. It was strictly a matter of determining whether constitutionally derived laws protected the rights of women in cases of religious practice. The court determined that no laws have been broken in barring women from this practice.

The high court explained, “The practice is integral to the temple and it is ‘essential religious practice’ of the temple and in no way amounts to discrimination keeping in view Article 25 and 26 of the Constitution of India, which guarantees protection of the cherished liberties of faith, belief and worship to persons belonging to all religious in a secular polity.”

Other notes suggested that of course the court systems had no right to write or reform traditional religious texts passed down for centuries, and even that “they are under an obligation to follow the religious text” when disputes regarding religious customs and traditions arise. When cases involve religious transformation, the court system should therefore disregard new practices in favor of those passed down for longer periods of time. 

These, according to the courts, have no bearing on the constitutional rights of Indian citizens.

In fact, the court deemed it unnecessary — and even unjust — to review religious practices because religious morality and judicial morality are often construed much differently, especially when it comes to worship.

The court said that “doing so would negate the freedom to practice one’s religious according to one’s faith and beliefs. It would amount to rationalising religion, faith and beliefs, which is outside the ken of courts.”

The case was brought to the court’s attention when a female Jain asked for the right to perform the aforementioned religious rituals.

“The court is not a theological wizard and shall be transgressing its role as a constitutional authority by interfering with the essential religious practice,” the court wrote. “Which is certainly not at all opposed to public order, morality, health or any other fundamental right. Resultantly, no case for interference is made out in the matter and the writ petition is accordingly dismissed.”

New Bill Will Give Jain Refugees And Others Citizenship In India

It’s never easy to find yourself in a new country with unfamiliar people, but that’s the case for many Hindu, Buddhist, Sikh, and Jain refugees who would like to stay in India. Home Minister Amit Shah wants them to know they will never have a place to stay in his country.

Shah said, “We will expel each one of them.”

This was in stark response to Chief Minister Banerjee who wants to allow the refugees to stay in India. “You will not be forced to leave India by the Centre,” he said. “Before NRC, we will bring Citizenship Amendment Bill, which will ensure these people get Indian citizenship.”

Banerjee provided land right to dozens of refugee colonies who are currently situated on government-provided plots. There are at least 237 colonies currently situated on private land, and the residents of those colonies need a place to go.

These events are transpiring during the Hindu festival of Dussehra, which some Jains are celebrating by burning a demon effigy in Monroeville. A 15-foot likeness of the demon king Ravan will be lit up using a string of fireworks affixed to its body.

Temple President Hitesh Mehta said, “All of the Hindu community comes here to celebrate.”

Jain participants have invited the general public to experience the festival as well in an effort to share common beliefs and practices — because most people don’t even know that the Jain religion exists.

Mehta said, “We plan and we fast and we worship. You are purifying the inner soul during those first nine days. On the 10th day the bad tendencies are removed.”

On that day, evil is purified through the symbolic burning of the effigy. This represents the moment in history when Ravan the kidnapper was killed by Rama, whose wife had been stolen by the demon. 

If the celebration seems familiar, that’s because it bears striking similarities to the pagan week-long holiday that used to be celebrated in Ancient Rome, Saturnalia. During this festival, Roman citizens would eat and drink, and a period of general lawlessness ensued. Everyone would choose someone to engorge with food, drink, and sex, and then at the end of Saturnalia that person would be slaughtered (having been the symbolic embodiment of evil).

Saturnalia was eventually stolen and assimilated by Christians, who used the familiar holiday to capture some of the pagan blasphemers. Saturnalia eventually turned into Christmas!

Jain Cuisine To Try On Paryushan Parv

Those who follow the Jain religion know that Paryushana is one of the most important days of the year. In 2019 it began on Tuesday, August 27 and it will end tomorrow, on Tuesday, September 3. Jains are in the midst of an unusually strong week-long commitment to a combination of fasting and prayer to place emphasis on their five most important vows: ahimsa (non-violence), satya (truth), asteya (non-stealing), brahmacharya (chastity), and aparigraha (non-possession).

Those in the Svetambaras sect call is Paryushana, which means abiding or coming together, and celebrate for eight days. Those in the Digambaras sect call it Das Lakshan Dharma and celebrate for ten days.

All those who celebrate this event enjoy “forgiveness day,” or Samvatsari/Kshamavani at the festival’s conclusion.

During their period of fasting, Jains will stay away from a number of different food items: potatoes, onions, green veggies, garlic, etc. What can they eat? Here are a few things you might try — even if you aren’t Jain!

Daal-Baati consists of small balls of flour dough baked to perfection in a tandoor oven. The butter-flavored dish is served with lentils.

Instant Rava Dhokla is more of a breakfast food made with rava, curd, oil, and salt.

Last but not least, Jains often break their fast with Panchkuta ki Sabzi, and is composed of five main ingredients: Ker, Amchur, Sangri, Kumati, and Gunda.

Chana Moon Dal Dhokli is spiced flour dumplings and is served with lentils.

Strained yogurt, or Shrikhand, might be substituted for dessert.

During the festival Jains will read the sacred texts, focusing on the ten righteous virtues, which are: Uttam Kshama (forbearance), Uttam Mardava (supreme modesty), Uttam Aarjava (straightforwardness), Uttam Satya (truth), Uttam Soch (purity), Uttam Sanyam (supreme restraint), Uttam Tap (austerity), Uttam Tyaga (renunciation), Uttam Aakinchanya (non-attachment), and Uttam Brahmcharya (supreme celibacy). 

Jain monks are especially devoted to these particular principles.

For the Digambaras, one of these ten righteous virtues are studied in full on a single day of the festival, the goal being to complete them all by the time it’s over. This study must be performed once every year, but it can be completed during other holidays as well — like Shukla Panchami to Chaturdashi of Bhadrapada, etc. 

When the festival ends, Jains will beg one another for forgiveness for all the wrongs they did in the previous twelve months. The ritual begins by saying the words “Micchami Dukkadam”/”Uttam Kshama,” both of which roughly translate to: “If I have caused you offense in any way, knowingly or unknowingly, in thought, word, or deed, then I seek your forgiveness.”

Who Are Some Historical Figures Who Followed Jainism?

Like any religion, Jainism has had its fair share of believers — both in and out of the public eye. This community of pacifist believers has thrived since its conception in the sixth century BC by Jina Vardhamana Mahavira. Most of the people on this list follow the core tenets of Jain faith, which includes a cycle of reincarnation in an effort to achieve ultimate salvation by living as ethically as possible. Here are a few historical figures who were Jain believers.

 

  • Rishab Kumar Jain. This young man has received many awards for his extraordinary work in science and research, including “America’s Top Young Scientist” and “Time’s 25 Most Influential Teens.” Those who know him describe his personality as curious, which should come as no surprise for a teen who managed to use artificial intelligence to help find better treatment for patients suffering from pancreatic cancer.
  • Vikram Ambalal Sarabhai. This Indian scientist is known for his massive contributions to India’s space program. He was a member of the Indian Science Congress, the President of the General Conference of the I.A.E.A. in Vienna, founder and chairman of the Space Applications Centre in India, and Vice President of the Fourth United Nations Conference on “Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy.” A lunar crater was named in his honor in 1973, only two years after his death.
  • Vandana Jain. The New Delhi native is known for her achievements in the field of medicine. She works as the founding Director of the Advanced Eye Hospital and Institute, which is no surprise to those who understand her level of education and the many subsequent qualifications she earned. She has been published in at least 30 national and international journals, all of which were peer-reviewed. She writes for the Deccan Herald.
  • Rakesh K. Jain. Another famous student of medicine, his work in over 600 publications has been cited tens of thousands of times. He advises all tiers of Indian society, including government, academia and the medical industry. His work focuses mainly on tumor biology and drug delivery, and he strives to find new methods to fight disease using nanotechnology. His work has led to many new discoveries in the field of medicine, and revolutionized the way many other researchers approach the subject.

  • Piyare Jain. He discovered the subatomic particle called the axion, and currently works as a particle physicist at the University of Buffalo. He made the exciting discovery using 3-D photographic medium targets from heavy-ion particle accelerators at a time when most other physicists doing similar research had moved onto new technologies. Sometimes the old way is the best way.